汽车倒车测距仪毕业设计外文翻译

原文:

Ultrasonic distance meter

Document Type and Number:United States Patent 5442592

Abstract:An ultrasonic distance meter cancels out the effects of temperatureand humidity variations by including a measuring unit and a reference unit.In each of the units a repetitive series of pulses is generated each having arepetition rate directly related to the respective distance between anelectroacoustic transmitter and an electroacoustic receiver. The pulse trainsare provided to respective counters and the ratio of the counter outputs isutilized to determine the distance being measured. Publication Date:08/15/1995

Primary Examiner:Lobo, Ian J.

A.BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to apparatus for the measurement of distance andmore particularly to such apparatus which transmits ultrasonic wavesbetween two points.

Precision machine tools must be calibrated. In the past this has beenaccomplished utilizing mechanical devices such as calipers micrometersand the like. However the use of such devices does not readily lend itself toautomation techniques. It is known that the distance between two points canbe determined by measuring the propagation time of a wave travellingbetween those two points. One such type of wave is an ultrasonic oracoustic wave. When an ultrasonic wave travels between two points thedistance between the two points can be measured by multiplying the transittime of the wave by the wave velocity in the medium separating the twopoints. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide apparatusutilizing ultrasonic waves to accurately measure the distance between twopoints.

When the medium between the two points whose spacing is beingmeasured is air the sound velocity is dependent upon the temperature andhumidity of the air. It is therefore a further object of thepresent invention toprovide apparatus of the type

described which is independent of temperatureand humidity variations.

B.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The foregoing and additional objects are attained in accordance with theprinciples of this invention by providing distance measuring apparatuswhich includes a reference unit and a measuring unit. The reference andmeasuring units are the same and each includes an electroacoustictransmitter and an electroacoustic receiver. The spacing between thetransmitter and the receiver of the reference unit is a fixed reference distancewhereas the spacing between the transmitter and receiver of the measuringunit is the distance to be measured. In each of the units the transmitter andreceiver are coupled by a feedback loop which causes the transmitter togenerate an acoustic pulse which is received by the receiver and convertedinto an electrical pulse which is then fed back to the transmitter so that arepetitive series of pulses results. The repetition rate of the pulses isinversely related to the distance between the transmitter and the receiver. Ineach of the units the pulses are provided to a counter. Since the referencedistance is known the ratio of the counter outputs is utilized to determinethe desired distance to be measured. Since both counts are identicallyinfluenced by temperature and humidity variations by taking the ratio of thecounts the resultant measurement becomes insensitive to such variations.

C.DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A.principle of ultrasonic distance measurement

1.the principle of piezoelectric ultrasonic generator

Piezoelectric ultrasonic generator is the use of piezoelectric crystal resonators to work. Ultrasonic generator the internal structure as shown inFigure 1 it has two piezoelectric chip and a resonance plate. When its twoplus pulse signal the frequency equal to the intrinsic piezoelectric oscillation frequency chip the chip will happen piezoelectric resonance and promote the development of plate vibration resonance ultrasound is generated. Conversely if the two are not inter-electrode voltage when the board received ultrasonic resonance it will be for vibration suppression of piezoelectric chip the mechanical energy is converted to electrical signals then it becomes the ultrasonic receiver.

2.the principle of ultrasonic distance measurement

Ultrasonic transmitter in a direction to launch ultrasound in the moment to launch the beginning of time at the same time the spread of ultrasound in the air obstacles on his way to return immediately the ultrasonic reflectedwave received by the receiver immediately stop the clock. Ultrasound in the air as the propagation velocity of 340m / s according to the timer records the time t we can calculate the distance between the launch distance barriers that is: s=340t / 2

B.Ultrasonic Ranging System for the Second Circuit Design

System is characterized by single-chip microcomputer to control the useof ultrasonic transmitter and ultrasonic receiver since the launch from time to time single-chip selection of 8751 economic-to-use and the chip has 4Kof ROM to facilitate programming. Circuit schematic diagram shown in Figure 2. Draw only the front range of the circuit wiring diagram left and right in front of Ranging Ranging circuits and the same circuit it is omitted.

1.40 kHz ultrasonic pulse generated with the launch.

Ranging system using the ultrasonic sensor of piezoelectric ceramic sensors UCM40 its operating voltage of the pulse signal is 40kHz which bythe single-chip implementation of the following procedures to generate.puzel: mov 14h 12h ultrasonic firing continued 200ms

here: cpl p1.0 output 40kHz square wave

nop;

nop;

nop;

djnz 14h,here;

ret

Ranging in front of single-chip termination circuit P1.0 input port singlechip implementation of the above procedure the P1.0 port in a 40kHz puls eout put signal after amplification transistor T the drive to launch the first ultrasonic UCM40T issued

40kHz ultrasonic pulse and the continued launch of 200ms. Ranging the right and the left side of the circuit respectively then input port P1.1 and P1.2 the working principle and circuitin front of the same location.

2.reception and processing of ultrasonic

Used to receive the first launch of the first pair UCM40R the ultrasonicpulse modulation signal into an alternating voltage the op-ampamplification IC1A and after polarization IC1B to IC2. IC2 is locked loopwith audio decoder chip LM567 internal voltage-controlled oscillator centerfrequency of f0 1/1.1R8C3 capacitor C4 determine their target bandwidth.R8-conditioning in the launch of the carrier frequency on the LM567 inputsignal is greater than 25mV the output from the high jump 8 feet into alow-level as interrupt request signals to the single-chip processing.

Ranging in front of single-chip termination circuit output port INT0interrupt the highest priority right or left location of the output circuit with output gate IC3A access INT1 port single-chip while single-chip P1.3 andP1. 4 received input IC3A interrupted by the process to identify the sourceof inquiry to deal with interrupt priority level for the first left right after.Part of the source code is as follows: receive1: push psw

push acc

clr ex1;related external interrupt 1

jnb p1.1 right;P1.1 pin to 0,ranging from right to interrupt service routine circuit jnb p1.2 leftP1.2 pin to 0,to the left ranging circuit

interrupt service routine

return: SETB EX1;open external interrupt 1

pop?acc

pop?psw

reti

right: ...?;right location entrance circuit interrupt service routine

?Ajmp Return

left: ... left Ranging entrance circuit interrupt service routine

?Ajmp ?Return

3.the calculation of ultrasonic propagation time

When you start firing at the same time start the single-chip circuitrywithin the timer T0 the use of timer counting function records the time andthe launch of ultrasonic reflected wave received time. When you receive theultrasonic reflected wave the receiver circuit outputs a negative jump in theend of INT0 or INT1 interrupt request generates a signal single-chipmicrocomputer in response to external interrupt request the implementationof the external interrupt service subroutine read the time differencecalculating the distance . Some of its source code is as follows:

RECEIVE0: PUSH PSW

PUSH ACC

CLR EX0;

related external interrupt 0

?MOV R7,TH0;read the time value

MOV R6 TL0?

CLR C

MOV A,R6

SUBB A,#0BBH;calculate the time difference

MOV 31H,A;storage results

MOV A,R7

SUBB A,#3CH

MOV 30H,A?

SETB EX0;open external interrupt 0

POP ACC?

POP PSW

RETI

D.Fourth the ultrasonic ranging system software design

Software is divided into two parts the main program and interrupt serviceroutine shown in Figure 3 (a) (b) (c) below. Completion of the work of themain program is initialized each sequence of ultrasonic transmitting andreceiving control.

Interrupt service routines from time to time to complete three of therotation direction of ultrasonic launch the main external interrupt servicesubroutine to read the value of completion time distance calculation theresults of the output and so on. E. CONCLUSIONS

Required measuring range of 30cm 200cm objects inside the plane to doa number of measurements found that the maximum error is 0.5cm andgood reproducibility. Single-chip design can be seen on the ultrasonicranging system has a hardware structure is simple reliable small featuressuch as measurement error. Therefore it can be used not only for mobilerobot can be used in other detection systems.

Thoughts: As for why the receiver do not have the transistor amplifiercircuit because the magnification well CX20106 integrated amplifier butalso with automatic gain control level magnification to 76dB the centerfrequency is 38k to 40k is exactly resonant ultrasonic sensors frequency.

翻译:

超声波测距仪

文件类型和数目:美国专利5442592

摘要:提出了一种可以抵消温度的影响和湿度的变化的新型超声波测距仪,包括测量单元和参考标准。在每一个单位,重复的产生一系列脉冲,每一个重复直接关系到发射机和接收机之间的距离。脉冲串提供给各级的计数器,然后利用计数器所测得的数据进行距离的测量。

出版日期: 1995年8月15日

主审查员:罗保. 伊恩j.

一、背景发明

本发明涉及到仪器的测量距离,更特别的是,这种仪器传送超声波于两点之间。精密机器必须校准。在过去,这已经可以利用卡钳、微米等工具来校准机械设备。不过,使用这种工具并不容易实现自动化。据了解,两点之间的距离可以通过测量波在两点之间的传播时间来确定。这样一个类型的波可以是一种超声波、或声、或波。当超声波传播于两点之间时,两个点之间的距离可以通过由超声波波速乘以它的传播时间,在合适的分离的两点。因此,此发明提供了一个通过仪器利用超声波准确测量两点之间距离的方法。

当任意两点之间的介质是空气时,声音的速度取决于温度和空气的相对湿度。因此,它是进一步的研究对象。本次的发明,提供的是独立于温度和湿度的变化的新型仪器。

二、综述发明

这项距离测量仪器发明是根据上述的一些条件和额外的一些基础原则完成的,其中包括一个参考单元和测量单元。参考和测量单元是相同的,每个单元都包括一个超声波发射机和一个接收机。参考单元的发射器和接收器之间的间隔是一个固定的参考距离,而测量单元的发射器和接收器之间的距离才是我们所要测量的部分。在每一个单元中,发射器和接收器都耦合了一个反馈回路,以使发射机产生有接收器接收的超声波脉冲,然后由接收器转换成一个电脉冲反馈到发射机,使产生一系列重复脉冲的结果。脉冲重复率是发射器和接收器之间的距离,

成反比关系。在每一个单元,脉冲提供一个反馈。由于参考的距离是众所周知的声速,反比例产出利用数学期望的距离来衡量。由于这两方面都是相同的影响,温度和湿度的变化,采取的比例相同,由此产生的测量变得准确。

三、详细说明

一 超声波测距原理

1、压电式超声波发生器原理

压电式超声波发生器是利用压电石英晶体谐振器的工作。超声波发生器的内部结构,它有两个压电晶片和一个共振板如图1所示。当它的两个加脉冲信号的频率等于内在压电振荡频率芯片,该芯片将发生压电谐振,促进发展板振动共振超声产生。相反,如果两个电极间的电压时,共振极板会接受超声波共振,将振动抑制压电晶片的机械能转换为电信号,这时它就成为超声波接收器了。

2、超声波测距原理

超声波发射器向某一方向发射超声波,在发射时刻的同时开始计时,超声波在空气中传播,途中碰到障碍物就立即返回来,超声波接收器收到反射波就立即停止计时。超声波在空气中的传播速度为340m/s,根据计时器记录的时间t ,就可以计算出发射点距障碍物的距离s ,即:s=340t/2

二 超声波测距系统的电路设计

系统的特点是利用单片机控制超声波的发射和对超声波自发射至接收往返时间的计时,单片机选用8751,经济易用,且片内有4K 的ROM ,便于编程。电路原理图如图 2 所示。其中只画出前方测距电路的接线图,左侧和右侧测距电路与前方测距电路相同,故省略之。

1、40kHz 脉冲的产生与超声波发射

测距系统中的超声波传感器采用UCM40的压电陶瓷传感器,它的工作电压是 40kHz 的脉冲信号,这由单片机执行下面程序来产生。

puzel : mov 14h,12h#;超声波发射持续 200ms

here : cpl p1.0 ; 输出 40kHz 方波

nop ;

nop ;

nop ;

djnz 14h,here ;

ret

前方测距电路的输入端接单片机 P1.0 端口,单片机执行上面的程序后,在 P1.0 端口输出一个 40kHz 的脉冲信号,经过三极管 T 放大,驱动超声波发射头 UCM40T ,发出 40kHz 的脉冲超声波,且持续发射200ms 。右侧和左侧测距电路的输入端分别接 P1.1 和 P1.2 端口,工作原理与前方测距电路相同。

2、超声波的接收与处理

接收头采用与发射头配对的UCM40R ,将超声波调制脉冲变为交变电压信号,经运算放大器IC1A 和IC1B 两极放大后加至IC2。IC2是带有锁定环的音频译码集成块LM567,内部的压控振荡器的中心频率f01/1.1R8C3,电容C4决定其锁定带宽。调节R8在发射的载频上,则LM567输入信号大于25mV ,输出端8 脚由高电平跃变为低电平,作为中断请求信号,送至单片机处理。前方测距电路的输出端接单片机INT0 端口,中断优先级最高,左、右测距电路的输出通过与门IC3A 的输出接单片机INT1端口,同时单片机P1.3和P1.4接到IC3A 的输入端,中断源的识别由程序查询来处理,中断优先级为先右后左。部分源程序如下:

receive1:push psw

push acc

clr ex1 ; 关外部中断 1

jnb p1.1 right ; P1.1 引脚为 0转至右测距电路中断服务程序

jnb p1.2 left ; P1.2 引脚为 0转至左测距电路中断服务程序

return : SETB EX1; 开外部中断 1

pop?acc

pop?psw

reti

right : ...? ; 右测距电路中断服务程序入口

?ajmp return

left : ... ; 左测距电路中断服务程序入口

?ajmp return

3、计算超声波传播时间

在启动发射电路的同时启动单片机内部的定时器T0,利用定时器的计数功能记录超声波发射的时间和收到反射波的时间。当收到超声波反射波时,接收电路 输出端产生一个负跳变,在INT0或INT1端产生一个中断请求信号,单片机响应外部中断请求,执行外部中断服务子程序,读取时间差,计算距离。其部分源程序如下:

RECEIVE0: PUSH PSW

PUSH ACC

CLR EX0 ; 关外部中断 0

?MOV R7 TH0 ; 读取时间值

MOV R6 TL0?

CLR C

MOV A ,R6

SUBB A ,#0BBH; 计算时间差

MOV 31H ,A ; 存储结果

MOV A ,R7

SUBB A ,#3CH

MOV 30H,A ?

SETB EX0 ; 开外部中断 0

POP ACC?

POP PSW

RETI


相关文章

  • 汽车倒车防撞报警器设计-实习报告
  • 毕业实习报告 一.选题目的 1.汽车倒车防撞装置采用单片机作为控制电路,结合超声波测距原理,实现倒车防撞功能.本设计需充分运用电路.数电.模电.单片机.传感器等专业知识,是对之前所学的一次综合检验. 2.本设计具有一定的实际运用价值.试想若能在未来的座驾上安装一个DIY 的倒车雷达,这又何尝不是一件 ...

  • 汽车倒车防撞报警器毕业设计
  • 乐山师范学院毕业设计(论文) 本科生毕业设计报告 学 院 物理与电子工程学院 专 业 电子信息工程 论文题目:汽车倒车防撞报警器设计 学生姓名 指导教师 班 级 学 号 完成日期:2014 年 12 月 题目:汽车倒车防撞报警器 物理与电子工程学院 电子信息工程 学号 [摘 要]本设计是以基于AT8 ...

  • 基于超声波倒车雷达 文献综述
  • 浙江理工大学本科毕业设计(论文)文献综述报告 基于单片机的倒车预警系统的设计 严团 09自动化2班 B09330224 1 前言 我们把频率高于20000赫兹的声波称为"超声波".超声波具有方向性好,穿透能力强,易于获得较集中的声能,在水中传播距离远等特点.可用于测距,测速,清洗 ...

  • 基于超声波测距的倒车雷达
  • · 毕业设计(论文) 题 目 基于超声波测距的倒车雷达 系 (院) 专 业 班 级 学生姓名 学 号 指导教师 职 称 光电工程系 电子信息科学与技术 2011级1班 *** ********** ** 讲师 二〇一五年五月十八日 滨州学院本科毕业设计(论文) 独 创 声 明 本人郑重声明:所呈交的 ...

  • 超声波倒车雷达
  • 摘要 随着生活质量的提高,工作的需要,科技的发展,人们将越来越多的在生活中和工作中将汽车作为其日常的生活工具.给汽车安装倒车雷达系统,将使汽车安全性大大提高,以确保行车安全. 本系统是基于单片机控制的汽车倒车"雷达"系统,系统由AT89C51单片机.超声波发射电路.超声波接收放大 ...

  • 超声波倒车雷达系统设计
  • 目录 摘要:.............................................................. 3 Abstract ........................................................... 4 第一章绪论 .. ...

  • 精密测距三角高程测量的误差分析
  • 中国地质大学长城学院毕业设计(论文)任务书 学生姓名 指导教师 毕业设计 (论文) 题目 毕业设计(论文)主要内容和要求: 首先介绍精密三角高程的测量原理,然后从精密三角高程测量高差计算公式入手,分析精 密三角高程测量的误差来源,通过各项误差来源性质的分析,得出减弱各项误差从而提高精度 的一些相关结 ...

  • 自动化毕业设计论文题目
  • 自动化专业 毕 业 设 计 论 文 题 目 目 录 第1-100个自动化毕业设计论文题目 ..................................................................................................... 3 第 ...

  • 矿山测量毕业论文中英文资料外文翻译文献
  • 矿山测量 中英文资料外文翻译文献 附录A 译文' ] 矿山测量的昨天.今天和明天 摘要 本文综述了测绘学科的最新进展,给出了传统测绘学的概念和特征,主要论述了测绘学科新技术的发展现状,对全球定位系统.卫星重力测量.遥感.地理信息系统.宽带网络和虚拟现实这几项新技术分别给出其定义.学科特征和最新进展动 ...

© 2021 范文中心 | 联系我们 webmaster# onjobs.com.cn